by Michael Bettencourt

Dr. Ronnie Perelis

Dr. Ronnie Perelis

Dr. Ronnie Perelis, Chief Rabbi Dr. Isaac Abraham and Jelena (Rachel) Alcalay Associate Professor of Sephardic Studies, and Dr. Flora Cassen, associate professor of history and associate professor of Jewish, Islamic, and Middle Eastern studies at Washington University in St. Louis have received a Cross-Institutional Cooperative Grant from the American Academy for Jewish Research (AAJR) to organize, according to their application, “two workshops—one at Washington University in St. Louis, the other at Yeshiva University in New York City—to discuss the analysis and translation of the works of Yoseph Ha-Kohen and Luis Carvajal. These workshops will not only help us formulate the best ways to bring our ambitious project to completion, but also assist us in constituting a committed group of collaborators.” This grant will spark ideas and new connections between scholars.

“Our hope,” said Dr. Perelis, “is that these conferences, which we are titling ‘Translating the Americas: Early Modern Jewish Writing on the New World,’ will set the stage for our more ambitious project of collecting, annotating and translating the fascinating texts written by Early Modern Jews about the New World in Hebrew, Spanish and other languages. Of course, given the challenges we face today with having in-person meetings, we are also planning a series of virtual encounters around this multifaceted theme.”

Read the full proposal here.

 

February 19, 2020

The Bernard Revel Graduate School of Jewish Studies, YU Libraries and the Seforim Sale hosted a lecture by Dr. Moshe Sokolow, the Fanya Gottesfeld-Heller Professor of Jewish Education and Associate Dean of Azrieli Graduate School of Jewish Education and Administration, on his new book, Reading the Rav: Exploring Religious Themes in the Thought of Rabbi Joseph B. Soloveitchik.

(A full video of the lecture can viewed on the Yeshiva Academic Institutional Repository.)

Dr. Sokolow’s purpose in writing the book was not to add another volume to the large body of work written about the Rav but instead use the man’s work to take the Rav “to places where he himself never went.” In this particular case, being an educator, Dr. Sokolow wanted to excavate “the mine of his erudition” to tease out what might have been Rabbi Soloveitchik’s thoughts about Jewish education, a subject he never tackled directly.

To do this, he examined two well-known works: The Lonely Man of Faith and Fate and Destiny (often known as Kol Dodi Dofek). At the heart of each of these works, said Dr. Sokolow, is a dialectic that, if examined closely, provides the outline of what the Rav might have considered a proper and effective Jewish education.

In the former work, the dialectic in play is between Adam 1, the man who seeks to control the external world, and Adam 2, the man who seeks to control his inner world. The synthesis of the two results in a person who has the skills to subdue the stuff of the earth but guided by an introspection that provides limits, insights and humility, a condition that is “whole internally and successful externally.”

In the second work, he finds a tension between fate, which can result in passivity, where the person is moved by “the forces of the environment,” and destiny, “an active mode of existence, one wherein man confronts the environment into which he was thrown.” Too much fate, and stagnation may occur; too much destiny, and hubris may rule. The synthesis results in a person whose strength of faith guides the life-choices destiny offers, life-choices best shaped by Torah study and an observant life.

Dr. Sokolow concluded that if the Rav were to write directly about what a Jewish education should be and do, he would focus on how that education would build within students these creative tensions between the need to be active in the world balanced by the need to ensure that such worldly action is guided by introspection nourished by Torah study.

 

On November 12th, 2019, a new dimension of Torah u-Madda was opened in a program about the ancient Chinese philosopher Confucius and Ezra ha-Sofer, presented by Prof. Annping Chin of Yale and YU Bible Professor Mordechai Cohen. This was the fourth lecture event of Yeshiva University’s Chinese-Jewish Conversation (CJC). It took place at Yagoda Commons on the Beren Campus and was co-sponsored by the Katz School, the Bernard Revel Graduate School of Jewish Studies and the Confucius Institute at SUNY. A video recording of the event is on the CJC website.

Provost Selma Botman opened the program by emphasizing the core values of family and education shared by the Chinese and Jewish traditions. She spoke passionately about the strong values conveyed by her parents, both hard-working immigrants from Russia, who sought to improve the prospects of their children through higher education.

Offering greetings on behalf of SUNY was Dr. Gui Albieri, Vice President for Student Affairs and Chief Diversity Officer at the State University of New York, and American Director for Confucius Institute for Healthcare at SUNY College of Optometry. Albieri defined himself as a “part-time philosopher” and revealed to the audience that he has long been a devotee of Prof. Chin’s works—and that he was excited to finally meet her in person.

Dr. Gui Albieri, Dr. Jie Chen, Dr. Mordechai Cohen, Dr. Annping Chin, and Dr. Selma Botman

In the first part of the program, Prof. Cohen made a comparison between Confucius and Ezra, who were near contemporaries. Both of these great, spiritually motivated men lived in times of political weakness and sought improvement by restoring the values of their respective ancient traditions. Confucius looked to the early rulers of the Zhou dynasty (11th century BCE) for inspiration and expounded their values to his students. According to tradition, Confucius edited the “Five Classics” that embody the wisdom of ancient Chinese culture—and which would come to be known as the “Confucian canon.”  The teachings of Confucius himself are recorded in the work known as “the Analects” (Lun yu). According to Jewish tradition, Ezra, together with the men of the Great Assembly, brought together and edited the 24 books of the Tanakh (Hebrew Bible). During his lifetime, Ezra was faced with a Jewish population in Judea that was ignorant of Torah law, which he reinstated through a dedicated project of education that culminated in the public reading of the Torah in Jerusalem, as described in the book of Nehemia, chapter 8.

“Confucius, You Surprised Me: Readings from the Analects on Learning, Governance, and the Political Life” was the title of the lecture by Prof. Chin, a leading world scholar of Confucian philosophy. She focused on three chapters of the Analects to discover what Confucius thought about learning, governance, and the political life: How they relate to one another and how they translate into action and policies. Chin also discussed what might seem surprisingly fresh and compelling about Confucius’ views and what they can teach us as we confront our own political realities.

Dr. Annping Chin

The selections from the Analects (Book 12 – 14) addressed three parts: Learning, Governance, and Political Life. In the first part, “Learning,” Chin cited the observation Confucius made about a young man who seemed to be very accomplished: “He is not someone who seeks to make progress. He simply wants to grow up fast” (Book 14.44). Chin explained the contrast between “making progress” and “growing up fast”. For Confucius there are no shortcuts in learning; one doesn’t truly “grow up fast” intellectually. The real masters of learning make their progress gradually, through perseverance and repeated practice.

In the second part, “Governance,” Chin cited Book 13.18 of the Analects:

The governor of She said to Confucius: “Right here, in our place, there is a man called Upright Gong. When his father stole a sheep, he bore witness against him.”

Confucius responded, “Where I came from, those who are considered upright are different from this man. Fathers cover up for their sons, and sons cover up for their fathers. Being upright lies therein.”

From the governor’s perspective, “uprightness” was manifested when the son reported his own father to the local law enforcement agency. Yet Confucius believed that “uprightness” was shown when the fathers and sons protect each other from outside authorities. Chin pointed out that here Confucius addressed a moral question: How do we define “uprightness”? Is it defined by the law, or by some other value system?  For Confucius this virtue was embedded human nature and the complex inter-relation between respect for family and for society.

The third part, “Political Life,” or “Politics” was the main focus of the lecture. Chin cited from the Analects, Book 14.39, which uses a series of metaphors:

The Master was playing the stone chimes in Wei when a man, carrying a bamboo basket, went past his door. This man said, “This playing is fraught with a heavy and careworn heart.” He continued, “How squalid this keng keng sound! If no one understands him, then he should just keep what he believes to himself and that is all: ‘If the water is deep, just wade across it. If the water is shallow, lift your hem and cross it.’ ”

Dr. Chin emphasized that the recluse (the man with the bamboo basket) resorted to metaphor to imply his viewpoints about politics. In the sentence “If the water is deep, just wade across it. If the water is shallow, lift your hem and cross it,” the water represents the political situation, and the recluse’s advice to Confucius was that when the current situation becomes hopeless, it is a waste of time and effort to even become involved. Confucius said about the recluse:

“This man sounds like he knows what he wants. If he is so resolute, he should not have                              any difficulties.”

Based on the commentators of the Analects, Chin explained this as a veiled critique. In one sense, Confucius envied the recluse for the freedom to stay apart from the troublesome affairs of society and the world around him. in this worldly world. But Confucius chose the more difficult path to stand out politically and seek proactively to change society for the better.

Lastly, Chin cited a famous passage, Book 13.3 of the Analects, which focuses on Confucius’ political aspirations:

If names are not rectified, what is said will not seem reasonable. Then what is said does not seem reasonable, nothing will get accomplished. When nothing gets accomplished, rites and music will not flourish. When rites and music do not flourish, punishments and penalties [will take their place, and they] will fail to be just when put into use. And when punishments and penalties fail to be just in practice, people will not know where to put their hands and feet. Thus when a gentleman names something, the name can surely hold up in a speech. When he says something, his words can surely be carried out in action.

Here Confucius expresses his famous conception of the “rectification of the names,” meaning to make words correspond to reality–according to traditional social designations and relationships. In his view, every member of society, from the political leadership on down must fulfill their proper roles, which will bring harmony to the country in a society enriched by music, art, and literature.

 

More than 100 people participated in this event and learned from the lecture. In the subsequent discussion, the audience asked questions about the relevance of Confucius in our politically challenged society. As Chin noted—Confucius’ insights often speak to our modern situations with great insight.

Closing up the event, Cohen thanked the speakers, the organizers, and the audience and noted that more activities are planned to the Chinese-Jewish Conversation next semester.

 

Dr. Tzahi Weiss

On Tuesday, Nov. 5, 2019, the Bernard Revel Graduate School of Jewish Studies welcomed Dr. Tzahi Weiss, associate professor of Jewish mysticism and Hebrew literature at the Open University of Israel, to speak about “Rethinking Kabbalah.”

In his lecture, Dr. Weiss posited that the development of a theosophy of ten sefirot [emanations], an attempt to systematize attributes of the Jewish God, was actually a conservative rabbinic measure. He explains that in the early 13th century, there were popular Jewish beliefs that the rabbis felt were problematic and even heretical. These beliefs included veneration of angels and upholding a binitarian belief system wherein God is conceived of having an upper part (ilat ha’ilot or sibat ha’sibot) and a lower part (metatron). By outlining a sefirotic theosophy while simultaneously emphasizing the unity of God and the necessity of praying to the one God himself, early kabbalists were trying to counter the problematic trends of their time.

Dr. Weiss’ understanding of the emergence of kabbalah differs from that of the standard understanding that treats kabbalah as a revolutionary new development rather than a conservative rabbinic response. In support of his understanding, Dr. Weiss noted that there are no early texts which criticize the system of the sefirot, per se.

Dr. Weiss details this theory in his book, Cutting the Shoots: The Worship of the Shechina in World of Early Kabbalistic Literature.

 

 

November 3, 2019

Rabbi Dr. Yakov Nagen ’89YC, ’89BR, ’94R, is a Rabbi at the Otniel Yeshiva in Israel and a leading figure in encounters between Judaism and Eastern religions.

In two lectures sponsored by the Bernard Revel Graduate School of Jewish Studies, The Katz School of Science and Health, the Chinese-Jewish Conversation and The Confucius Institute at SUNY, Dr. Nagen expanded upon the idea that at its core, Judaism is a method of detecting truth through honest (rather than self-aggrandizing) disputation that, when done with sincerity and humility, integrates principles of “doing” (defined as an effort to fix things because the world is constantly under construction) and “being” (which he sees as a focus on the present moment) into a balanced and active life.

(l-r): Dr. Mordechai Cohen (professor of Bible; associate dean, Bernard Revel School of Jewish Studies; divisional coordinator of academic Jewish studies and Yeshiva College; and director of the Chinese-Jewish Conversation) and Rabbi Dr. Yakov Nagen

In “Introduction to Jewish Thought from Beijing and Shanghai,” delivered on Oct. 24, 2019, he spoke about his family’s connection to the Jews who went to Shanghai for refuge. This family history has made him sensitive to the ways in which the traditions of Israel and China complement each other, especially in their respect for a truth derived from an engagement with ancient wisdom.

Audience member at lecture by Rabbi Yakov Nagen
Enjoying the wit and wisdom of Rabbi Yakov Nagen

In “To Do and To Be: Judaism’s Integration of East and West,” on Oct. 28, 2019, he continued this train of thought by referring to the two stories of creation in the Bible, what Rabbi Dr. Joseph Soloveitchik referred to as Adam I and Adam II in The Lonely Man of Faith. “The world of Adam I,” said Dr. Nagen, “is a story about conquering and about separating and dividing time.” However, the world of Adam II is “timeless,” linked to the imagery of water and cyclical life. For Dr. Nagen, the two stories come together in the word “shalom,” with its knitting together into a dynamic whole the opposites of fire and water.

Much of the material in these lectures can be found in his book, Be, Become, Bless – Jewish Spirituality between East and West, where he converses with both Eastern spirituality and Western thinking in an attempt to create a synthesis that unifies “being” and “doing” in service to a search for truth.