For information about this event and Dr. Ofer’s bio click here.



R’ Moshe ben Nahman (1194-1270), also known as the Ramban or Nahmanides, was born in Girona, Catalonia in present day Spain. This city is where he spent most of his life, including where he wrote his commentary on the entire Humash.  Following his arrival in Eretz Yisrael in 1267 he edited his commentary. After observing the geography of Eretz Yisrael, he realized that some of the assumptions made in his commentary were incorrect. He subsequently edited his commentary with hundreds of new passages in the last three years of his life.

It should be noted that, in order to not cause confusion to the scribes who would copy his commentary, the Ramban would always add the changes to the existing text and would almost never delete anything. Most editions of the Ramban’s commentaries are close to the updated edition, and they have minimal indication of whether a particular passage was added to the original by Ramban at a later stage. Dr. Yosef Ofer (and his colleague Dr. Jonathan Jacobs) were able to find them all using three methods of identification: explicit statement of the Ramban, ‘update lists’ sent from Eretz Yisrael, and finally, a mutual comparison of the manuscripts of Ramban’s commentary, which represent the two phases of its creation. Dr. Ofer focused on the following examples: Hevron, kever Rachel, and the shekel.

Dr. Yosef Ofer

Dr. Yosef Ofer

Commenting on Genesis 42:9, where Yosef has reached the apex of his career as a servant to Pharaoh and is finally confronted by his brothers, the Ramban asks why he did not inform his father of his whereabouts. He notes that the journey from Egypt to Hevron was a mere six days. This passage was added following his arrival in Eretz Yisrael, clearly reflecting his newfound knowledge of the length of travel from these two points. Similarly, in Numbers 13:2, when Moshe sends the spies, the Ramban initially assumes that the recently-freed Israelites were unfamiliar with the goodness of Eretz Yisrael, and the spies’ mission was to inspire confidence in the people of the land’s greatness. However, the Ramban revises his commentary to say that their mission was to find a good route to enter the land, reflecting his realization of the short distance from Egypt to Hevron (seven days in this passage, a minor discrepancy from Genesis 42:9).

In the case of kever Rachel, Genesis 35:16, regarding Rachel’s death, the verse says she died kivrat ha’aretz far from Ephrata (=Bethlehem). Various opinions differ as to what that phrase means. The Radaq thought that it referred to two- or three- hour journey on foot (about 10 miles). Ramban adopted his commentary, but having discovered that her tomb is one mil from Bethlehem, he revised his commentary.  . [Rav Kimhi suggests that the letter kaf is not part of the root of the word kivrat. Its root is b.r.h. which means to eat,   found in EIcha 4:10 and Samuel II 13:5]. In another passage (Lev. 18:25) Ramban wrote that Rachel died outside of Eretz Yisrael, and then remanded his commentary.

Finally, when the Ramban was in Akko, he discovered an ancient silver shekel coin. There was writing in ancient Hebrew script on both sides. With the help of the Samaritans, who were familiar with this script, the Ramban wrote that the words “Shekel of shekels” was written on one side, and “Holy Jerusalem” on the other. 300 years later, R’ Azarya de Rossi of Italy found a similar coin, and he wrote that it said “Shekel of Israel” instead of “Shekel of shekels.” According to the late Dr. Ya’akov Meshorer, the Samaritans confused a hey with a yud and a quf with a reish. Ofer thinks the Samaritans read it as Shekel Hashkal, which is why the Ramban was given inaccurate information.

By Jonathan Roytenberg

Jonathan is a student at Yeshiva College and takes classes at the Belz school.


The Bernard Revel Graduate School of Jewish Studies invites you to a lecture -


Nahmanides’ Revisions in His Torah Commentary
Regarding Hebron, RAchel’s Tomb and the Shekel Coin

by Dr. Yosef Ofer

Nahmanides (1196–1270) wrote his Torah commentary
while still in Spain, but updated it when he came to
the Land of Israel at the end of his life, producing
“Addenda” that were incorporated into later copies
of his commentary. Comparison of medieval
manuscripts of Nahmanides’ commentary enables
us to detect these Addenda, and discern the changes
in his interpretations.This lecture will focus on three
important Addenda that incorporate geographic data
and archaeological discoveries Nahmanides learned
of in Israel, and how he modified his commentaries
on the related biblical passages accordingly.

Dr. Yosef Ofer is Associate Professor in the Bar-Ilan
Bible Department and a member of Israel’s Academy
of the Hebrew Language. His fields of research
are the Masora, medieval Bible exegesis, and the
development of modern Hebrew. His published books
include Nahmanides’ Torah Commentary: Addenda
Written in the Land of Israel (Hebrew, co-authored
with Jonathan Jacobs, Jerusalem 2013) and The
Babylonian Masora of the Pentateuch, its Principles
and Methods (Hebrew, Jerusalem 2001).

Presented by the Bernard Revel Graduate School of Jewish Stuides of Yeshiva University in partnership with Lincoln Square Synagogue.
Dr. Aaron Koller, Associate Professor of Near Eastern and Jewish Studies, Bernard Revel Graduate School and Yeshiva College; author of Esther in Ancient Jewish Thought
Dr. Orit Avnery, lecturer in Bible at Shalem College and a research fellow at the Shalom Hartman Institute’s Kogod Research Center for Contemporary Jewish Thought; author of Liminal Women: Belonging and Otherness in the Books of Ruth and Esther
Rabbi David Silber, founder and Dean of Drisha; author of For Such a Time as This: Biblical Reflections in the Book of Esther





Book Cover_Zimmerman

Professor Joshua Zimmerman will be giving a lecture this Thursday (Nov. 17th) @ 4 PM at the UCLA Center for Jewish Studies:

Wounds of History: The Polish Underground and the Jews during World War II…/wounds-of-history-the-polish-und…/